The types of microphones being used and microphone placement is determined during the planning phase.
Microphones are cabled and placed during the set-up phase. Therefore, at production time the A-1 senior or audio person should be ready to mix the event. Audio inputs come from a variety of sources which may or may not include:
• Multiple talent
• Public address system
• Field-of-play microphones (including camera mics)
• Ambience microphones
• Crowd microphones
• Player/coach/referee wireless microphone
• Multiple VTRs or other type of playback equipment
The A-l is responsible for mixing all of these audio signals into a clear representation of what is actually occurring at the event. The A-l must concentrate on which camera is being called for by the director as well as know which talent is going to speak. Then, he or she can "pot up" the corresponding microphone in order to provide the audience with the sound from the proper source.
During the production, the A~2 or audio assistant's responsibilities include hand holding microphones, making sure that wireless microphones have good batteries, changing batteries, keeping the appropriate microphone flag on the microphone, and troubleshooting any problems with the microphones and cables. Sometimes a microphone may need to be changed during production.
1. Always test the microphones before the production begins.
2. Run microphone cables perpendicular to electrical cords, not parallel.
3. Limit the distance between the talent and the microphone to reduce ambient noise.
Pre-game, post-game, and half-time productions offer a myriad of challenges for audio. There are a number of areas that require quality sound, making it almost impossible to only go with "live" sound. Prerecorded audio is often used to supplement and sometimes completely replace live sound. The following is a list of some of the reasons prerecorded audio is used.
1. Prerecorded sound allows for near perfect synchronization of the technical aspects of the spectacle, offering the ability to link sound, lights, camera movement, and other enhancements.
2. Prerecorded sound ensures optimal quality for television, allowing for stereophonic sound (stadium spectators only hear monophonic sound), as well as mixed enhancements.
3. Prerecorded sound allows a better experience or sense of proximity to the event for television viewers. For both television and stadium spectators prerecorded sound also can direct attention to specific events happening in a very large stadium in a way that live sound cannot.
4. Unforeseen weather conditions, such as the rain or the wind, do not affect the prerecording but can affect live music leading to irreparable distortions in a live broadcast.
5. Unforeseen noises, such as friction between the microphone and the actors' clothes, movements of the announcers in respect to the microphone or various feedback effects, can be avoided.
6. The use of prerecorded sound can be more comfortable for the performers in the stadium, especially for singers, some of who, in fact, preferred that their music be prerecorded.
7. There were also several microphones strategically placed in the stadium in order to pick up spontaneous sound during the event, in the form of applause, booing, and cheering.